What is Whole Spectrum Hemp Extract? The Lowdown On A Fuller Spectrum Of CBD Oil
CBD oil is one of the most popular wellness products on the market today. Many people are not aware that there are many types of CBD oil and that it can be extracted from multiple different types of Cannabis.
Hemp is Cannabis
There are 3 species of Cannabis: Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica, and Cannabis Ruderalis. Hemp is a type of Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Sativa L. Genetically, hemp contains very low levels of THC. THC is the plant molecule, or phytocannabinoid, that makes you feel intoxicated or inebriated. To be considered a legal product, the CBD oil or hemp extract must contain less than 0.3% THC. Consuming a legal hemp product will not make you feel intoxicated. Hemp plants at harvest must contain 0.3% THC or less.
It’s all about genetics in the Cannabis plant family. Some strains, or chemovars, of Hemp, can contain up to 20% CBD. Cannabis Sativa, Indica, and Ruderalis blends can contain more than 20% THC at harvest. Cannabis strains are either pure or hybrids within the Cannabis Plant family. They are all cousins to each other. A field of mature hemp and a field of a mature Cannabis Indica hybrid can look and smell a lot alike.
In order to have a better understanding of what different types of CBD oil there are on the market, you need to have a better understanding of the phytocannabinoids that are in the different types of cannabis chemovars.
Phytocannabinoids are the plant molecules in the cannabis plant family that mimic our body's own endocannabinoids. There are more than 500 known compounds in all of the cannabis plant species, including terpenoids, flavonoids, omega fatty acids, and over 100 phytocannabinoids.
Different chemovars of Cannabis contain varying amounts of phytocannabinoids. For example, hemp contains high concentrations of CBD and very low concentrations of THC. Other chemovars, such as Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Sativa plants, contain high amounts of THC and low amounts of CBD. In all chemovars, many other phytocannabinoids are present. Let’s take a closer look at the more well known and studied Cannabis phytocannabinoids.
Raw and Heated Phytocannabinoids
Cannabigerol, CBG, is like the stem cell of all the other phytocannabinoids. CBG is the first phytocannabinoid to show up during the growing process of the cannabis plant. All phytocannabinoids grow inside the flowers or buds of the cannabis plant. From CBG, all other phytocannabinoids grow and evolve from. CBG slows malignant tumors cell growth, promotes bone growth, is a powerful anti-swelling, and slows bacterial growth. CBG is non-psychoactive.
Cannabichromene, CBC, connects with TRPV1 and TRPA1. CBC is one of the major phytocannabinoids in Hemp. Improves sleep, inhibits tumor cell growth, promotes bone growth, inhibits bacterial growth.
Cannabidiol, CBD, is an anti-swelling, antimicrobial, anti-depressant, anxiolytic, neuroprotective, relieves nausea and vomiting, relieves psoriasis, promotes healthy sleep, and regulates the immune system.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, provides pain relief, is an appetite stimulant, relieves itching, relieves nausea and vomiting, suppresses muscle spasms, corrects intraocular eye pressure (Glaucoma), inhibits tumor cell growth, relieves anorexia and cachexia (wasting away syndrome), relieves sadness, tremors and tics, and withdrawal symptoms from chronic opioid abuse; acts as a bronchodilator in asthma, regulates the immune system in auto-immune disorders, promotes better sleep, and acts as an anti-swelling agent.
Cannabigerivarin, CBGV, is anti-swelling, relieves pain, reduces the frequency and severity of seizures, and enhances the therapeutic effects of CBD and THC.
Cannabidivarin, CBDV, is anti-swelling, relieves pain, reduces the frequency and severity of seizures, relieves nausea and pain, and relieves sadness and stress.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin, THCV, regulates blood sugar levels, suppresses appetite, reduces stress, and stimulates bone growth.
Cannabichromevarin, CBCV, is anti-swelling, relieves sadness and pain.
Cannabigerolic acid, CBGA, is like a stem cell in the cannabis plant. It is the building block for THCa, CBDa, CBCa, and CBG. It is anti-swelling, Inhibits the spread of malignant tumor, and relieves pain.
Cannabichromene acid, CBCA, is anti-swelling and anti-fungal.
Cannabidiolic acid, CBDA, is anti-swelling, inhibits malignant tumor cell growth, relieves nausea and vomiting, relieves pain, reduces the severity and frequency of seizures, is antimicrobial, and is an antioxidant.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, THCA, inhibits malignant tumor cell growth, reduces muscle spasms, is neuroprotective, relieves nausea and vomiting, and improves sleep.
Curing and Decarboxylation
CBDA and THCA are the raw forms of the phytocannabinoids CBD and THC. As the plant is exposed to light and slowly matures, some of the CBDA and THCA will change to CBD and THC. At full maturity, the plant slowly dries or cures. The CBDA and THCA slowly change to CBD and THC due to exposure of heat and passage of time, during curing. Decarboxylation is the chemical reaction of removing the carboxyl group from the acidic phytocannabinoids and releases carbon dioxide. Decarboxylation heats the raw cannabis and quickly changes the THCA and CBDA to the active forms: THC and CBD. THC and CBD are the activated, heated forms of the phytocannabinoids.
Whole Spectrum, Full Spectrum, Broad Spectrum, and Isolates
The secret of the powerful punch of the whole spectrum hemp extract’s entourage effect is all in how the hemp was extracted into the oil. Organic ethanol, which is plant-based, is the best way to extract all of the phytocannabinoids, even the more fragile acidic forms that tend to die off when other forms of extraction such as supercritical CO2 extraction are used.
As a result, many delicate phytocannabinoids survive the multiple extraction processes and are present to synergistically interact with each other. Each phytocannabinoid is minimally refined, versus some hemp extracts are highly refined and isolated fractions of phytocannabinoids. This allows each phytocannabinoid to offer their own benefits while potentiating and enhancing the other phytocannabinoids present in the extract.
An isolate of CBD in the oil form contains only the CBD molecule that has been extracted out of the Cannabis plant. A Broad Spectrum Hemp CBD oil contains all of the major phytocannabinoids including CBD. Broad Spectrum Hemp CBD oil does not contain any THC. The THC has been extracted and left out of the final product.
Full-spectrum hemp-derived CBD oil contains all of the phytocannabinoids from the hemp plant, including 0.3% or less of THC. However, many full-spectrum oils do not contain the acidic forms of the phytocannabinoids, that provide a synergistic effect with the CBD in the extract, because of the extraction process used. The fragile acidic phytocannabinoids and other lesser phytocannabinoids like CBC are burned up before they reach the final product.
Isolates of CBD tend to generate a bell-shaped response. When this happens, if the amount of CBD isolate taken exceeds a certain amount, the therapeutic effect declines greatly. Often, no therapeutic benefits are observed when CBD isolate is given in a small serving or large serving.
Isolates and the Bell-Shaped Dose Response
Prescription drug interactions are most likely to occur when an Isolate of CBD is incorporated into a person’s medication regimen. Many people report that the CBD Isolate works for a certain amount of time, but will stop giving relief after time. Whole Spectrum Hemp Extracts do not create this bell-shaped response. Whole Spectrum Hemp Extracts can deliver relief when small, or micro-dosed servings are taken consistently over time.
A whole spectrum extract of hemp contains greater concentrations of the acidic forms of the phytocannabinoids and lesser phytocannabinoids. CBC in particular, when present with CBD and THC, greatly enhances the therapeutic effects of CBD and THC. Acidic phytocannabinoids, such as CBDa or THCa, are still in the raw form, meaning they have not been heated and activated. They work in tandem with the CBD molecule that was extracted at the same time.
When several phytocannabinoids are exerting an anti-swelling effect, you will feel a more powerful reduction in inflammation, stiffness, and pain throughout the body. The effect of this synergistic reaction between the raw and activated phytocannabinoids is that you actually need less of the CBD molecule to achieve relief and attain your wellness goals. Many full-spectrum CBD oil products contain 1,000 mg, 2000 mg, or up to 5,000 mg of CBD.
When people switch from a Full spectrum CBD oil to a Whole Spectrum Hemp Extract, like Kingdom Harvest, they find they are able to get the same relief, but they are actually taking as little as 10 mg of the CBD molecule per day. Our Whole spectrum hemp extract also contains up to 400 phytonutrients from the Hemp plant, because of the unique extraction process used. The full botanical extract of the hemp plant is what truly makes this product work more efficiently in your Endocannabinoid System.
Whole Spectrum Hemp Extract provides a unique delivery of phytocannabinoids into your body’s Endocannabinoid System or ECS. Phytocannabinoids found in the hemp plant can interact within the ECS. The endocannabinoid system acts like a giant computer that directs the 12 body systems to maintain optimal health, at all times.
The Endocannabinoid System
The main function of the endocannabinoid system is to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is a just-right state of balance in the body. An example of homeostasis is the constant searching for potential infections or imbalances in your body performed by your immune system.
The Endocannabinoid System is responsible for providing neuroprotection and guiding your immune system. Everyone has a unique and very different Endocannabinoid System, much like a fingerprint. Your Endocannabinoid System can change over time with age, hormonal changes, pregnancy and childbirth, illness, malignant tumor, and trauma.
There are several moving parts to the Endocannabinoid System. The 4 main parts of the Endocannabinoid System are the nervous and immune systems, CB 1 and CB 2 receptors, endocannabinoids, and enzymes that breakdown the endocannabinoids. Let’s take a closer look at those moving parts.
CB 1 receptors are located primarily in the brain and throughout the central nervous system. CB 2 receptors are located primarily on immune organs such as the thymus and spleen and in the lymph system, immune cells, skin cells, and reproductive organs. CB 2 receptors may play a role in controlling the immune system through controlling inflammation throughout the body. The ECS has tissues and organs that have a mixture of both receptors such as the liver and cardiovascular system.
CB 1 and CB 2 receptors are the most abundant receptor type in your body. They are 10 times more concentrated than opioid receptors in the brain and begin developing in a human fetus at 14 weeks gestation.
Endocannabinoids bind to CB 1 and CB 2 receptors to achieve homeostasis. They are made from the essential fatty acids, omega 3’s and omega 6’s, from the food you consume on a daily basis. Endocannabinoids are made on-demand to achieve homeostasis and are then broken down and deactivated by enzymes. They are messengers that act as neurotransmitters that tell the endocannabinoid receptors what to do.
There are many endocannabinoids. The two main endocannabinoids that do most of the work within the Endocannabinoid System are Anandamide (AEA) and Archachidonoyl glycerol (2AG).
Anandamide produces a state of relaxation and bliss. Anandamide is responsible for controlling memory, movement control, motivation, and higher thought processes. It plays an important role in regulating pain, appetite, and fertility. Anandamide controls the spread of malignant tumors throughout your body and increases neurogenesis, the formation of new nerve cells. It is most abundant in the body when you are resting and sleeping.
2AG regulates appetite and the immune system, pain management, mood stability, metabolism, bone health, reproductive health, and sleep quality. 2 AG is more abundant than Anandamide in the body and is most active in the body during waking hours.
The Endocannabinoid System is so large and vital that almost every cell in the body expresses endocannabinoid receptors. The system is a vital bridge between the body and mind, and endocannabinoids like Anandamide are the messengers that keep the system running smoothly.
Anandamide and 2 AG bind to the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Imagine a CB1 or CB2 receptor acting as a docking station. The endocannabinoids act as mini computers. Once the endocannabinoids dock, they turn into neurotransmitters once inside the cell. Once they become a neurotransmitter, healing and homeostasis occur. Once homeostasis occurs, the enzymes FAAH and MAGL breakdown Anandamide and 2 AG to conserve your endocannabinoids for further homeostasis.
CBD and the Pleiotropic Effect
CBD does not activate CB1 or CB2 receptors. CBD suppresses the fatty acid FAAH, that breaks down Anandamide. This makes more Anandamide available to help create homeostasis in the body.
CBD creates a pleiotropic effect inside the body. A pleiotropic effect is when one medication or plant molecule can simultaneously produce more than one therapeutic effect. Research has shown that there are several receptors throughout the CNS that CBD acts on to create this pleiotropic effect. These receptors include the Vanilloid Receptor, the Adenosine receptor, the Serotonin receptor, the GPR55 receptor, and the PPARS receptor.
CBD acts as an agonist and decreases pain, inflammation, and regulates body temperature through the TPRV 1 or Vanilloid receptors. CBD activates the serotonin receptors and causes an inhibitory response. As a result, one experiences less stress, less addiction, appetite inhibitor, better sleep, less pain perception, and decreased nausea and vomiting.
CBD blocks or inhibits the GPR55 receptor. This receptor regulates blood pressure and bone density. This receptor, when activated, promotes malignant tumor cell proliferation. CBD blocks this receptor and thus blocks the spread of tumors in the body. The blocking of this receptor reduces the amount of bone resorption in the body. Thus, overall, the structure of a bone becomes stronger over time.
PPAR receptor activation degrades Amyloid-beta plaques and causes tumor cell regression. Amyloid-beta plaques are plaques that collect in the brain and cause dementia.THCA, the raw form of THC, is also a PPAR receptor agonist. THCA provides potent neuroprotection and may guard against the onset of neurological diseases like Huntington’s Disease.
PPARS receptors also regulate genes that are involved with lipid (fat) uptake, insulin sensitivity, and other metabolic functions. Energy from fat cells is more readily used and the body’s ability to use insulin more efficiently helps the body to use and store calories more efficiently. A person’s BMI may decrease over time as well as the need for exogenous insulin products and as oral diabetic medication such as glyburide.
Adenosine receptors play a part in cardiovascular function. They regulate coronary artery blood flow and cardiac oxygen consumption. CBD activates the adenosine receptors and produces anti-stress effects.
Whole Spectrum Hemp Extract and the Entourage EffectThe Entourage Effect occurs when phytocannabinoids are working in tandem together to regulate each other to create homeostasis. All of the phytocannabinoids that are extracted at the same time, from the same hemp flowers, create a synergy together that elevates the overall effectiveness of the cannabis medication, while others aid in lessening side effects such as drowsiness.
When you are taking an isolate of CBD, a broad-spectrum extract, or a full-spectrum extract, you often need to consume a lot of milligrams of the extract every 24 hours to find relief. This is not a cost effective way to find relief. With a Whole Spectrum product, like Kingdom Harvest, you need less amount of the extract and you have a better way of achieving the entourage effect within your Endocannabinoid System.
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- Patricia H. Reggio. Endocannabinoid binding to the cannabinoid receptors: What is known and what remains unknown. Curr Med Chem J. 2010; 17(14): 1468–1486.